Edited: Sunday, 29 October 2017
The inverse-square law describes the forces between both electric charges and objects with mass. For the latter, a more accurate description is provided by Einstein's general theory. Without proposing a cause, it relates mass and energy to curved geometry in four dimensions of a spacetime system for which the intrinsic nature was in a paper published 2009 by the Swedish Mathematical Society explained by me with reference made to the Wave Theory of Time, WTT. In brief words, the primary cause of the curvature is that space and time repeat themselves in a four-dimensional loop as the surface of a sphere does in a three-dimensional loop. Defining the measure of space from the measure of time, WTT proposes for the latter a scale varying as specified by a continuous wave repeating itself in a two-dimensional loop like the periphery of a circle and representing a primary cause or Primus Motor.
According to WTT, the repetition rate is very high in the microcosmic spacetime system of an elementary charge and very low in the macrocosmic spacetime system where it is connected to an elementary particle of gravity. These repetition rates are related to the rest masses of the respective elementary particles. The very low repetition rate related to the elementary particle of gravity makes it in contrast to the electromagnetic force difficult to manipulate gravitation. It is better to forget any hope of shielding and also the belief presently in a repulsive force connected to dark energy and counteracting gravity - probably the greatest bubble in the history of science.
Einstein's cosmological constant provides a numerical value for dark energy. The magnitude of that value depends on the chosen reference for time. In fact, it vanishes when the light generating atomic clock is replaced by a light propagation macrocosmic clock. Whether cosmologists prefer the atomic clock due to mathematical simplicity or not is of less importance than the fact that it is here not the natural choice*. For comparison, if Earth is chosen as reference for space in an explanatory model of the solar system, then gravity has to be complemented by mysterious dark forces for calculating the orbits of the planets.
The atomic time clock reference has provided a misleading perspective on the cosmic expansion for which it plays a role of even less importance than the role played in the solar system by our planet. Both of them have been the wrong choice of reference for finding explanatory models which simply are possible without their presence at all. The scientific society is now challenged by a new Copernican Revolution.